Cancer Treatment and Prevention: All About Oncology


Cancer Treatment and Prevention: All About Oncology

Cancer is a serious health problem worldwide and affects millions of people every year. In this article, starting from the importance and prevalence of cancer, we will discuss in detail the basic concepts and goals of oncology, different cancer types and treatments, early diagnosis and treatment methods, new developments and treatment approaches, quality of life and supportive therapies, and finally the importance and constantly developing fields of oncology.

Importance and Prevalence of Cancer

Cancer is recognised as one of the leading causes of death worldwide. According to statistics, cancer affects the lives of millions of people every year and results in death. The prevalence of cancer occurs as a result of the interaction of various factors. These include genetic predisposition, environmental factors, wrong eating habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and sedentary lifestyle. The prevalence of cancer is not only an important problem that threatens public health, but also seriously affects health systems.

Basic Concepts and Objectives of Oncology

Oncology is a branch of science that examines cancer-related studies and treatment methods. Its main aim is to understand the causes of cancer, to develop early diagnosis and effective treatment methods, to improve the quality of life of patients and to raise the level of awareness of the society in the fight against cancer. The basic concepts of oncology include structural and biological properties of cancer cells, cancer types, causes of cancer, cancer spread and metastasis processes, cancer treatment methods and cancer prevention.

Cancer Types and Treatments

Cancer is a disease that can be caused by many different cell types and can develop in various parts of the body. Therefore, there are different types of cancer. The most common types of cancer include breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, lymphoma and leukaemia. Each type of cancer differs with its symptoms, treatment methods and prognosis. Methods used in the treatment of cancer include various methods such as surgical intervention, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted drug therapies, immunotherapy. The choice of treatment depends on the patient’s cancer type, stage, general health and other factors.

Early Diagnosis and Treatment Methods

Early diagnosis is one of the most effective strategies in the fight against cancer. Cancers diagnosed in the early stages usually achieve more successful treatment results. Therefore, early diagnosis methods are of great importance. Early diagnosis methods include cancer screening tests, imaging techniques (such as MRI, CT, PET, mammography), biopsy, blood tests, genetic tests and cancer markers. Early diagnosis allows cancer to be caught at a treatable stage and prolongs the patient’s life expectancy.

New Developments and Treatment Approaches

Cancer research and treatment methods are constantly evolving. In recent years, innovative approaches such as cellular therapies, genetic engineering, immunotherapy, nanotechnology have significant potential in cancer treatment. These new treatment methods target cancer cells, minimising damage to healthy cells and reducing side effects. In addition, the personalised medicine approach is used to determine treatment options based on patients’ genetic profiles and the molecular characteristics of their cancer. This allows for more effective and appropriate treatments.

Quality of Life and Supportive Therapies

Cancer treatment can often cause side effects and negatively affect patients’ quality of life. Therefore, supportive therapies are important. Supportive therapies include pain management, antiemetics, nutritional support, psychosocial support services, physical therapy, counselling and counselling services, and paediatric care. These treatments improve patients’ quality of life, alleviate symptoms and reduce stress during the treatment process.


Cancer is a major health problem worldwide and oncology, a constantly evolving field, is making significant progress in the fight against cancer. However, cancer still poses a serious threat and further research, early detection methods and effective treatment options are needed. Future expectations are to increase knowledge and awareness of cancer, develop innovative treatment methods and implement strategies for cancer prevention.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

  • What can be done to reduce the risk of cancer?

Lifestyle changes can be made to reduce the risk of cancer, such as healthy eating, regular exercise, and reducing smoking and alcohol consumption.

  • For which age groups are cancer screening tests recommended?

Cancer screening tests are generally recommended for people aged 50 years and over, but some tests may be recommended for different age groups for certain types of cancer.

  • What are the side effects that may occur during cancer treatment?

Side effects such as hair loss, fatigue and nausea may occur during cancer treatment.

  • How can cancer patients get psychological support?

Cancer patients may consider options such as therapy, counselling services, joining support groups for psychological support.

  • What lifestyle changes can be made to prevent cancer?

Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and alcohol consumption, adopting healthy eating habits and exercising regularly can be made to prevent cancer.

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